Wednesday, June 24, 2020
CHAPTER 2 Employee innovation behaviour has been defined as the intentional behaviour of an individual to introduce and/or apply new ideas, products, processes, and procedures to his or her work role, unit, or organization (West Farr, 1989, 1990b). Examples of employee innovative behaviour in the workplace include introducing new technologies and techniques, suggesting new ways to achieve objectives, trying new ways of performing work tasks, and facilitating the implementation of new ideas. Several points in the definition on employee innovation proposed by West and Farr (1989, 1990b) are worth noting. Firstly, employee innovative behaviours include behaviours pertaining to both the introduction and the application or implementation of new ideas, products, processes and procedures by the employees. This definition thus includes a variety of behaviours pertaining to the innovation processes in an organisation. Secondly, this definition takes into account both technical innovations (the introduction or application of new technologies, products, and services) and administrative innovations (the introduction or application of new procedures and policies) (Van de Ven, 1986). Technical innovations are innovations that occur in the primary work activity of the organization; administrative innovations are innovations that occur in the social system of an organization (Daft, 1978; Damanpour Evan, 1984). Examples of technical innovation include the implementation of an idea for a new product or the introduction of new elements in an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s production process. Examples of administrative innovation include the implementation of new policies of recruitment, allocating resources, and reward. Individual innovative behaviours could be behaviours pertaining to the introduction or implementation of both technical and administrative innovations. Thirdly, the new ideas, products, processes, and procedures being introduced or implemented do not have to be absolutely new to the field. They only need to be new relative to the unit of adoption. For example, an employee is innovating when he introduces an IT system that has not been used in his organization before. This technology doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t have to be a new invention and could have been used in other organizations before. And finally, innovative behaviours include not only those behaviours leading to innovations within the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role but also behaviours that initiate or facilitate innovations in higher level units such as the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work group, department, or the entire organization (West Farr 1989. 2.2 Construction of the Terminology Used in the Dissertation Several similar terminologies to employee innovation exist in the literature. A brief discussion about how those terminologies are similar to and different from the framework of employee innovative behaviour will prevent potential confusion and help our understanding of employee innovative behaviour. One similar construct is individual creative behaviour. Creativity refers to the production and introduction of novel and useful ideas, products, or processes (Amabile, 1988; Oldham Cummings, 1996; Shalley, 1995; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993). Individual creative behaviours are behaviours pertaining to the generation of such novel and useful ideas, products, or processes. Creative behaviour is closely linked to innovative behaviour and it can be considered as one type of innovative behaviour. However, innovative behaviours include a broader range of behaviours than just creative behaviours. Innovative behaviours include both the introduction of self-generated ideas (creative behaviou r) and the introduction and implementation of new ideas generated by other people and organizations. Creativity requires absolute novelty of the idea whereas innovation only requires relative novelty of the idea to the unit of adoption (King, 1990; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993).Therefore, adopting a new policy from another organization to the current organization would be innovative but not creative. Also, the definition of creativity includes an inherent requirement for the idea or product to be useful. The phenomenon of innovative behaviour doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t include a usefulness judgment in itself. An innovative attempt could result in different possible consequences for the organization. Yet an ineffective innovation is still an innovation. Also, creative behaviour concerns the generation of ideas whereas innovative behaviour includes both the generation or introduction and the application or implementation of the new ideas (Amabile, 1988; Scott Bruce, 1994; Zhou, 1998 , 2003). Another related concept to employee innovation is role innovation. Role innovation is the introduction of significant new behaviours into a pre-existing role (West, 1987a, 1987b). Role innovation is usually studied in the context of job change and relocation (e.g., Allen Meyer, 1990; Ashford Saks, 1996; Munton West, 1995; Nicholson, 1984; West Rushton, 1989). The reference for comparison in role innovation is the pre-existing job role. It is considered an act of role innovation, if the way the current job holder does his job is different from the way the previous job holder did it or from the way other people currently do the same job in the same organization. Role innovation is related to innovative behaviour in the sense that introducing new behaviours and procedures into an existing work role is one type of innovative behaviour. However, these two concepts are still different. Role innovation only changes processes within an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role. Innovative behaviours, however, is not limited to innovations occurring in the work role alone but also in the department, unit, and the organization. In addition, all innovative behaviours cannot be considered as role innovation. For example, developing new ideas and products is part of the job profile for some organizational positions (e.g. the RD department). People in those job positions routinely introduce new products and procedures into the organization and therefore frequently engage in innovative behaviour. However, since it is part of their existing job or work role, those behaviours are not considered as role innovation. Another similar concept is personal initiative. Frese, Kring, Soose, and Zempel (1996: 38) defined personal initiative as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa behavior syndrome resulting in an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s taking an active and self-starting approach to work and going beyond what is formally required in a given job. More specifically, personal initiative is characterized by the following aspects: it (1) is consistent with the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s mission; (2) has a long-term focus; (3) is goal-directed and action-oriented; (4) is persistent in the face of barriers and setbacks, and (5) is self-starting and proactive.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Some individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s behaviour in the workplace such as voluntary suggestion of new ideas to the organization can be seen as both personal initiative and innovative behaviours. However, not all personal initiative behaviours are innovative behaviours. Personal initiative could include both quantitative and qualitative initiatives. Quanti tative initiatives are those activities that only require additional energy. Those activities do result into the application of new ideas, products, and procedures into the workplace and therefore are not innovative behaviours. Moreover, personal initiative is voluntary in nature of the behaviour whereas innovative behaviours do not have to be beyond the formal job requirement. In a nutshell, creative behaviour, role innovation and personal initiative are all related to but different from the construct of individual innovative behaviour. Differentiating these constructs will further clarify the concept of employee innovative behaviour. At the same time, the existing similarities suggest the possibility that the literatures devoted to these related constructs could inform research on innovative behaviours. 2.3 Employee Innovation and Image Outcome Expectations Why do employees innovate in an organisation? A piece of wisdom reiterated by learning theories and motivation theories is the importance of outcome expectations in determining human innovative behaviour. The operant conditioning theory of learning stresses the importance of the Law of Effect, which states that behaviour which appears to lead to a positive consequence tends to be repeated, while behaviour that leads to a negative consequence tends not to be repeated (Thorndike, 1911). BanduraÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social learning theory (1977) proposed that people learn about the consequences expected for certain behaviours not only from their own experiences but also from observing others in the workplace. To summarize, operant conditioning theory and social learning theory advocates that people develop outcome expectations of certain behaviours either from direct experiences or from vicarious learning. The outcome expectations, in turn, guide their future behaviour in the workplace. The effects of outcome expectations on behaviour are more directly addressed in VroomÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectancy theory of motivation (1964). The renowned expectancy theory of motivation suggests that an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motivational force to perform an act is determined by his expectancies that the act will be followed by the attainment of certain first-level outcomes (expectancy), that these first-level outcomes will lead to certain second-level outcomes (instrumentality), and the value of these second-level outcomes (valence). The importance of outcome expectations is depicted by the concept of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âexpectancy,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? which is a subjective belief concerning the likelihood that a behaviour will lead to particular first-level outcomes (Vroom, 1964). A similar observation of the importance of outcome expectations in affecting individual behavioural intentions can also be found in Ajzen and FishbeinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory of reasoned action (1980). Outcome expectations guide innovative behaviours in the workplace. In the case of employee innovative behaviour, what are the major outcome expectations that affect employee innovation at work? Two major types of outcome expectations will impact employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision to engage in innovative behaviours: expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes. Expected performance outcomes are employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ expectations of how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the performance or efficiency of the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role or unit. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect other organization membersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ perceptions of him or her. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the perceptions of the other members of the organisation towards him or her. The linkage of performance and image outcomes at the individual level is comparable to the differentiation between organization efficiency and legitimacy as suggested by institutional theory (Meyer Rowan, 1977). The organizations compete for social as well as economic fitness in the institutional perspective (DiMaggio Powell, 1983). Whereas the economic fitness or organization efficiency frontier enhance the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s profits and competitive advantages, social fitness brings legitimacy which helps the organization gain stability, resources and hence survival. Several studies have recently brought such an institutional perspective into the study of innovation processes by highlighting the impacts of both efficiency outcomes and potential legitimacy outcomes on innovation adoption decisions. Tolbert and Zucker (1983) found that an early adoption of civil service is related to internal organizational requirements while late adoption is related to institutional de finitions of legitimate structural form Westphal, Gulati and Shortell (1997) in their research work found out that early adopters can customize Total Quality Management (TQM) practices for efficiency gains, while later adopters gain legitimacy from adopting the normative form of TQM programs. Results from both the empirical studies conclude that an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to adopt an innovation is influenced by both internal efficiency considerations (i.e., the efficiency outcome) and external legitimacy considerations (i.e., the image outcome). The results not only supports the importance of considering both outcomes in the innovation process but also suggests that their relative impact on innovation adoption will vary in different situations. Abrahamson (1991) suggested a typology that highlights the dominant efficient choice paradigm and other less dominant perspectives that can be used to guide innovation research. The dominant paradigm is the efficient choice perspective (i.e., the efficiency-oriented perspective), which conceptualises organizations as rational entities who always adopt innovations that can improve organization efficiency or performance. On the other hand, two other perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" the fashion and fad perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" stresses on the importance of social-political processes by suggesting that organizations sometimes adopt innovations for their symbolic meaning, signalling innovativeness, rather than to boost organizationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ economic performance. The impacts of expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes on employee innovative behaviour represents the efficiency-oriented and the social-political motives for employee innovation, respectively (s ee Figure 1). Figure 1 Outcome Expectations and Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for those marked with negative signs, all links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a). 2.4 The Efficiency-Oriented Perspective of Expected Performance Outcomes: The efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding employee innovation behaviour suggests that one major reason people innovate is to bring performance gains. Although assumed to be one of the major motivational reasons in this dominating paradigm, few studies have directly tested the effect of such expected performance outcomes on innovative behaviour. This dissertation provides a hypothesis for testing the outcome of the effects of such expectation and on employee innovation behaviour at work. Expected image outcomes have been considered different from the concept of subjective norm in the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen Fishbein, 1980) in this study. The subjective norm concept refers to a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief about whether significant others think that he or she should engage in the behaviour. Although both the concepts are related to potential social outcomes of employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ behaviour, expected image outcomes refer to expected perceptions from a po tential audience (i.e., other employees in the organization) rather than the concern for the approval or disapproval of others. Image outcome expectations can be influenced by other factors as well such as relationship quality, peer expectations, and job requirements. The Literature available on impression management provides an interesting distinction between defensive and assertive impression management (Arkin, 1981; Schlenker, 1980). Tetlock Manstead (1985:61) provides a good discussion on this distinction: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDefensive impression management is to protect an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ established social image; it is triggered by negative affective states such as embarrassment and shame. Whereas assertive impression management is designed to improve an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ social image; it is triggered by perceived opportunities for creating favourable impressions on others.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Therefore the difference between avoiding image risks and pursuing image enhancement represent different affective states and individual motives. Consulting the impression management literature, the dissertation hypothesizes two major types of image outcome expectations that may affect an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to engage in innovative behaviour. Firstly, expected image loss risk will constrain people from demonstrating innovative behaviour. An employee may decide to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âplay it safeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? and try and avoid being innovative in order to look socially appropriate and prevent potential image loss. Showing such a tendency to avoid negative evaluations represents the protective self-presentation (Arkin, 1981) or defensive impression management motive (Tetlock Manstead, 1985). The self-protective motive shows that expected image risks will restrict the tendency of an employee to engage in innovative behaviour (refer Figure 1). On the other hand, people may feel the need to innovate because they may see potential opportunity to enhance work efficiency. For example, a high-performing employee may want to introduce a new work technique because he or she perceives opportunities to further improve efficiency. Contrary to the problem-driven construct this latter construct is consistent with the more contemporary vision-guided change model (Cooperrider Srivastva, 1987; Cummings Worley, 2005; Watkins Mohr, 2001) and possibility-driven logic of change (Ford Ford, 1994). This approach suggests that changes can be initiated not only to solve existing problems but also to pursue further improvement toward an ideal vision. Efficiency and performance improvement increases the competitiveness and success of an employee. Regardless of the purpose being is to fix existing performance problems or to explore potential benefits, people will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour if they expect that the introduction of new ideas, products, procedures, or processes would bring positive performance outcomes to his or her work or job role (refer Figure 1). Therefore expected performance outcomes represent the efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding innovation. This approach suggests that people innovate because they expect positive results in performance gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the efficiency-oriented perspective of expected performance outcomes: Hypothesis 1: Expected positive performance outcomes are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.5 The Social-Political Perspective of Expected Image Outcomes Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviour would impact the perceptions of the other members of the organisation about him or her. Ashford, Rothbard, Piderit, and Dutton (1998), consider expected image outcomes as Employees may engage in innovative behaviour as a conscious effort to improve image. The employees engaging in innovative behaviour to pursue image gain depict the assertive impression management motive (Rioux Penner, 2001). An apt example will be employees suggesting new ideas to managers to appear competent and conscientious. Sutton and HargadonÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1996) designed a study to analyse self-enhancing motive and engineersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ competitive behaviours in brainstorming sessions. The self enhancing motive suggests that expected image gains will increase employee innovative behaviour at work (refer Figure 1). In line with the social-political perspective in understanding innovati on, both avoiding image risks (the self-protective impression management motive) and pursuing image gains (the self-enhancing impression management motive) emphasize the importance of social-political considerations in determining employee innovative behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 2(a): Expected image risks are negatively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 2(b): Expected image gains are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6 Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Performance and image outcome expectations are proximal determinants which determine employee innovation in the workplace and also serve as intermediate processes by which more distal individual differences and contextual antecedents affect employee innovation capabilities (West Farr, 1989). An analysis of how distal antecedent factors influence expectations of outcomes and therefore employee innovative behaviour is important for at least two reasons. Firstly, it addresses the question of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? distal individual differences of employees and contextual factors affect employee innovation behaviour by examining the intermediate psychological processes. Secondly, it explains the sources of variance in employee performance and image outcome expectations across individuals and situations. Without the intention of providing an all exclusive list, the following five distal antecedent factors were considered as especially important for employee innovation behaviour: Perceived organization support for innovation, supervisor relationship quality, innovativeness as job requirement, reputation as innovative, and dissatisfaction with the status quo. These aforementioned antecedents were chosen because they are among the most studied in the literature and they represent different angles to understand employee innovative behaviour. The five proximal antecedents were taken together to form the conceptual model for testing employee innovation behaviour in this dissertation. Figure 2 Diagram of Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for all those links marked with negative signs, all other links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a) 2.6.1 Perceived Organization Support for Innovation Organization support for innovation in terms of pro-innovation climate, resources, and time allocation, is one of the primary environmental qualities that promote innovation and creativity (Amabile, 1988; Kanter, 1988). This dissertation explores performance and image outcome expectations as important intermediate processes and tries to explain why such organization support affects innovative behaviour. If an organizational environment favours change rather than tradition for its growth and development, its members will seek to initiate change in order to be culturally appropriate (Farr Ford, 1990: 73). Similarly, an organizational climate that promotes innovation will encourage employee to engage in innovative behaviours because such climate legitimates experimentation (West Wallace, 1991) and reduces image risk involved in such behaviours (Ashford et al., 1998). An organization climate promoting innovation delivers expectancies and instrumentalities (Scott Bruce, 1994) so that the employees in that organization understand that being innovative is a desirable image. Reduced potential image loss risks and increased potential image gain environment encourage employees to engage in more innovative behaviours when perceived organization support for innovation is high. Employees in an organization supporting innovation may want to engage in more innovative behaviours not only because of the potential image outcomes but also because they have higher expectations for positive performance outcomes resulting from such innovative behaviours. A favourable organization climate for innovation demonstrates the belief that innovation will benefit the organization in developing and achieve the pinnacle of success. Having such beliefs embedded in the culture of the organization will influence individual attitudes and beliefs through the organization and boost innovation processes. SchneiderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1987) attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework suggests people attracted to and remaining in the organization are likely to be those individuals who share basic beliefs with the organization. Hence, it is logical to expect that compared with organisations not promoting innovative behaviours, people in organizations with pro-innovation climates are also more likely to have pro-innovation individual beliefs. In other words, they are more likely to be satisfied and believe that initiating innovations will benefit the efficiency and performance of their work. Such beliefs in positive performance outcomes serve as another motive for employee behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 3(a): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(b): Perceived organization support for innovation is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(c): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.2 Supervisor Relationship Quality A quality manager-employee relationship has been found out to be an important contextual factor on employee innovation and creativity (Scott Bruce, 1994; Tierney, Farmer, Graen, 1999). The prevalence of a quality relationship with supervisor will influence employee innovative behaviour indirectly through its influence on performance and image outcome expectations. A quality relationship between the managers and the employees will increase an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief that his or her innovative behaviour will result in performance and efficiency gains. The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that subordinates who have high-quality relationships with their supervisors are provided greater resources in the workplace (e.g., privileged information, work support) and decision latitude in return for greater loyalty and commitment (Dansereau, Graen, Haga, 1975; Graen, 1976; Graen, Novak, Sommerkamp, 1982). Therefore, employees with high-quality supervisor relationships are more likely to engage in innovative behaviour and be confident that their actions will result in performance and efficiency gains. Desire and motivation of the employees influence what he or she perceives (Gilbert, 1998; Markus Zajonc, 1985; Postman, Bruner, McGinnies, 1948). Research studies undertaken previously shows that supervisors tend to evaluate the employees they like and trust in a more positive way (Cardy Dobbins, 1986; Judge Ferris, 1993; Wayne Liden, 1995). When a supervisor likes and believes in the employee, he or she is more likely to think positively about the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ideas and believe such ideas are meaningful and significant (Zhou Woodman, 2003). Previous research on attributions concept indicates that when the supervisor likes or empathizes with his sub-ordinates, he or she is more likely to attribute positive outcomes to the sub-ordinatesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dispositional causes and negative outcomes to situational causes (Green Mitchell, 1979; Regan, Straus, Fazio, 1974; Regan Totten, 1975). It is expected that good people will perform good actions, and bad peopl e will perform bad actions. Thus when liked characters do good things or disliked actors do bad things, we attribute the action to characteristics of the character (Heider, 1958). Therefore, when perceiving a good relationship with the supervisor, an employee will feel more confident that his new ideas will receive acceptance and favourable evaluations from his supervisor, resulting in higher possibilities for image gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the supervisor relationship quality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 4(a): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(b): Supervisor relationship quality is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(c): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected image gains associated with innovative behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.3 Innovativeness as a Job Requirement The requirements of a job have been identified by researchers as an activating force for innovation (Kanter, 1988) and a primary factor in inducing employee creativity (Shalley, Gilson, Blum, 2000; Tierney Farmer, 2002). This dissertation explores the mechanisms through which perceived job requirement for innovativeness encourages individual innovation by its influences on both expected performance and image outcomes. The innovative requirement of a job is determined not only by the objective nature of the job position (e.g., RD scientists versus technicians) but also by the subjective attitude of the job holder, which can be influenced by factors including the job holderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social environment as suggested by the social information processing theory (Salancik Pfeffer, 1978). Perceived innovativeness as a part of job requirement will also encourage innovative behaviour by minimising the concerns for image risks and increasing image gain expectations. Firstly, it val idates innovative behaviours as officially acceptable and socially appropriate. The job requirement serves as a contextual influence that justifies the employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ innovative behaviour. Thus, the employees do not need to provide reasons to explain their innovative behaviours and do not need to be concerned about being seen as behaving inappropriately. Secondly, previous research evidence shows that an audience is less critical and more receptive to change-initiated or innovative behaviours from people whose functional background or job position supports such innovative behaviours. Ashford and colleagues (1998) found out in their research that functional background-issue fit negatively related to image risk from selling issues. In the same way, Daft (1978) found out that organizations appeared to adopt technical ideas from professionals (in that case, teachers) and administrative ideas from administrators. Applying the same logic here, managers and fellow co-workers w ill be more receptive to the innovative behaviours of employees in positions requiring innovativeness and will consider their new ideas as more valid and well-grounded, resulting in lower image risk and higher potential of image gain for the innovative employees. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 5(a): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(b): Innovativeness as job requirement is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(c): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.4 Reputation of an Employee as Innovative The employees are considered as more socially appropriate and legitimate when their behaviours match categorizations and expectations of the organisation where they work in (Zelditch, 2001). The existing literature on impression management suggests that the impressions people try to create are affected by their current image in the society (Leary Kowalski, 1990; Schlenker, 1980). Behaviours which are consistent with the expectations and reputations (especially desirable ones) are socially legitimized, and behaviours against those expectations run the risk of being looked down upon by the people in the society. The employees who are not expected to be innovative in their work may hesitate to demonstrate innovative behaviour because they will be afraid to act against social expectations and to be considered as out of line or outcasts. On the contrary, an employee who enjoys the reputation of being innovative among his fellow workers will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour because his or her reputation tends to legitimize the behaviour and reduce concerns for inappropriateness. Therefore, employees having such a reputation will be encouraged to show innovative behaviour by reducing concerns for image loss. A reputation of an employee as an innovative person builds oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s self-identity. Once an employee views or identifies himself or herself as an innovative person, their self-esteem will reinforce the positive view of innovation, strengthening the belief that innovations will make valuable contributions to performance or work efficiency. However a reputable innovative employee, although, may not necessarily expect that being innovative will further improve his or her image (Schlenker, 1980). The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 6(a): Reputation as an innovative employee is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 6(b): Reputation as an innovative employee is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.5 Dissatisfaction with the Status Quo Dissatisfaction with the status quo is a proximal factor that makes employees conscious of the need to change (Farr Ford, 1990) and the importance of introducing new ideas, products, procedures and processes. Zhou and George (2001) found out in their research that job dissatisfaction, along with continuance commitment, supportive co-workers and organizational support for creativity, can lead to higher employee creativity. Schein (1971) suggested that employee innovativeness in a profession may come about either because of changes in the working environment or a misfit between individual value systems and the role demands of the particular job, which may cause dissatisfaction. The present dissertation define dissatisfaction with the status quo as an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dissatisfaction with the current performance or efficiency condition of his or her job role or work unit in the organization. Dissatisfaction determines the value of maintaining the status quo and catalyses the necessity for introducing something new to improve the current situation (Lant Mezias, 1992). Dissatisfaction with the status quo could arise for a number of reasons such as unfavourable performance evaluation, social comparison or environmental changes, personality traits (e.g., neuroticism), and discovery of potential improvement opportunities (Farr Ford, 1990). Dissatisfaction strengthens peopleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s beliefs that new ideas, products, procedures, or processes will improve efficiency and expected positive performance outcomes. This leads to generation of more innovative behaviours in the workplace. When organization is less effective in its functioning, employees are more likely to get credit for introducing new technologies and new ways to achieve objectives (Lant Mezias, 1992). In such a situation, employee innovative behaviours are more likely to be welcomed and accepted in the organisational social context. And employees who demonstrate innovative behaviours will be more likely to be considered as conscientious and competent increasing the potentials for image gain at the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on dissatisfaction with the status quo Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 7(a): Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7b: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7c: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Ibsenss play is a modern tragedy which functions on two levels, questioning the established social order of the day and presenting the death of a marriage. Both these events create a great deal of tension, and combined with the language and actions used by the characters, make the play very intense. The main cause of dramatic tension throughout the play is the way that the difference between the real nature of the characters and the roles they are assigned by society is presented. This difference is demonstrated by the disparity in the action of the characters in comparison with their lexical choice. The initial impression given by the opening scene is of a happy traditional household. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The contrast between Noras language as she speaks to Krogstad and that used towards Helmer shows her increasing anxiety as she begins to threaten him, When one is in a humble position, Mr Krogstad, one should think twice before offending someone who - hm -! The continual use of the third person, one, shows Nora attempting to draw attention to her social status and so regain some control and authority over the situation. The fact that Krogstad is of lower social status yet has the audacity to threaten Nora would be somewhat shocking to the audience of the day, Do as you please. But I tell you this. If I get thrown into the gutter for a second time, I shall take you with me. The monosyllabic words and simple sentences, as well as the imperative Do as you please used by Krogstad, ensure that his threats have a lot of impact both on Nora and the audience. The harsh sound of the verb shall reasserts his authority and emphasises his power. Language also builds up tension in the play by displaying Noras desperation and therefore informing the audience of the significance of the situation she is in. Nora talks to herself more and more towards the climax of the play in frenzied and frantic sentences, Corrupt my little children - ! Poison my home! It isnt true! It couldnt be true! The exclamatory nature of these sentences shows that Nora is deeply distressed, and the fragmentedShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsens A Dolls House1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmany other types of literature, drama relies on several separate components all working together to tell a story. These components serve to draw an audience in, create a believable situation, and illicit a particular response. The play Ã¢â¬Å"A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s HouseÃ¢â¬ by Henrik Ibsen provides an excellent example for analysis, with each component strongly supported. Often the first, and most obvious, component that can be observed when reading drama is the point of view that it is written from. Point of viewRead MoreHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesindividual morals go against the social appearance, but in value, individuals perceive a need for an appearance to convey a sense of belonging. Within two diverse yet similarly realist dramas, A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and Death of a Salesman societal appearanceÃ¢â¬â¢s stands above all else. Henrick Ibsens A Dolls House embarks on the gender fitting and domesticity of the Victorian Era at its worse as Nora Helmers unrealistic marriage falls within her grasps, leading to rebellion. Arthur Miller, on the other handRead MoreHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House Essay example1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Phylogeny versus misogyny, arguable one of the greatest binary oppositions in a work of literature, is present in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s 1879 Norwegian play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House. The title itself suggests a misogynist view, while the work mainly consists of feminist ideology, as Ibsen was a supporter of the female as an independent, rather than a dependent on a male. Nora knew herself that her husband did not fully respect her, and this became a major conflict in the play as Nora progressively became more self-reliantRead MoreThe Masquerade in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House Essay1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã Ã In A Doll House, Ibsen presents us with Torvald and Nora Helmer, a husband and wife who have lived together for eight years and still dont know each other. This rift in their relationship, caused in part by Torvalds and Noras societally-induced gender roles and also by the naivete of both parties to the fact that they dont truly love one another, expands to a chasm by the end of the play, ultimately causing Nora to leave Helmer. Throughout most of the play, Ibsen continually has his charactersRead More Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Essay1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Marriage is a forever commitment between two individuals to love one another but marriages dont always have the fairytale happy ending. In Henrik Ibsens play A Doll House, Nora and Torvald Helmer learn some things about their marriage that they had not realized before. Nora Helmer discovers Torvald, herself, her marriage, as well as her own identity as a woman. Nora Helmer, the wife of Torvald Helmer, throughout the whole play has been keeping a secret from her husband. A few yearsRead MoreHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House Essay657 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWhat comes to mind when the word morals is said? Whose morals should be followed, individual or group? In A Doll House, Ibsen portrays the protagonist, Nora, to follow the morals of her husband, Torvald. Four key aspects that help Nora decide to change her mind and make a decision to leave Torvald. These include the constant change of nicknames, the questioning of her own independence, the questioning of Torvalds love, and the realization that Torvald loves his reputation more then herself.Read MoreEssay on Themes and Symbols in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdoll-childÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 1491). Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A Doll House tells a story of scandal and deceit set in the Victorian era. Nora Helmer is married to Torvald Helmer and she feel s more like his toy than his wife. Nora had to have Torvald to be able to do anything, because of when she lived. Nora borrows money behind her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s back (which is illegal at this time) and tries to cover up everything she has done. Ibsen employs the use of many themes and symbols in his A Doll House to show the reader just howRead More Noras Symbolism in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Essay973 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNoras Symbolism in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House Ã Ã Ã Ã In every society power is the bringer of fortune and influence. In his play A Dolls House, Henrik Ibsen portrays, through the character of Nora, the power women are gaining in patriarchal societies. Nora, who symbolizes all women, exercises her power throughout the entire play. She cleverly manipulates the men around her while, to them, she seems to be staying in her subordinate role. In all three acts of the play Nora controls manyRead MoreThe Theme of Feminism in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House Essay2521 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesand social dependence, and her dependence through her children. In A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, Ibsen argues that a dependent woman will be passive and unwilling to speak her mind. She will not try to understand the abstract reality of life, unless it contain to her lifestyle at home. Instead she will let the title of her marriage suppress her. She will lose sight of finding her own independence and instead become a doll living in a house. Nora, the protagonist of the play has all of these qualities NoraÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MorePet Names and Belittlement: Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a dolls house, Ibsen has combined several characters with diverse personal qualities and used them to develop the story line as well as bring to life the major themes and issues that the plot is meant to address. Primarily there are two types of characters who can be categorized as static and dynamic, the static characters remain the same form the start to the end of a story and despite the events taking place around them, and they do not change their perception or altitudes. These types of characters
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Impact that Alcohol Abuse Has on Community Health and Social Care Free Essay Example, 2000 words
The health problems that alcohol is known to cause within the body of the persons who use it cannot be ignored. Statistics has it that there are approximately 60 kinds of diseases that are linked to alcohol consumption due to the harmful effect it has on the body (Lanarkshire 2009). At the same time, a number of injuries have occasionally been linked to the consumption of alcohol e. g. the great number of the road accidents that are caused under the influence of the alcohol most of which turn extremely fatal. This state also causes injury to the people like when they fall on sharp or knock part of their bodies on hard surfaces due to loss of balance caused by excessive intake of alcohol. The consumption of alcohol has been blamed for the death caused by liver cirrhosis that has risen by a whopping 450% in the United Kingdom over the past 30 years. It is a pity that this condition is known to peak at a younger age putting the life of many youngsters to danger. The percentage of inci dences of liver cirrhosis in Scotland rose to 52% between the years 1998 and 2002 according to Leon 2002 in his book Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain. Intake of alcohol has also been associated with various other diseases like the cancer of the mouth, liver and the oesophagus. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact that Alcohol Abuse Has on Community Health and Social Care or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page A common case also associated with the condition is acute pancreatitis and arrest of the cardiac muscles- a condition that may lead to acute cardiac arrhythmias.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Everyone in America remembers 9/11/ in the United States it was a horrible day. Since then America has never been the same, but we cannot let that day change the way we think and act. Since the attack on September 11th, 2001 American citizens have been afraid of terrorists. The biggest contributor to this fear was 9/11, but that was not the only recent world attack. Terrorist attacks in Syria have also created fear, yet Syria is nowhere near the United States. While terrorism is definitely a threat, this concern is exaggerated. September 11th, 2001 was the day two Boeing 767s crashed into the the World Trade Center in NYC; this day changed everything. In the United States, security in airports and borders changed, adding many newÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The chance of dying from anything, being in a car crash or from a disease is so much greater than a terrorist attack, There is a much higher chance to die from everyday activities than a terrorist attack, this is simple fact. Most of this dismay has few causes, one of the most prevalent being the media. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all seen it, the news with there huge headlines about attacks in other countries and bombings, and they show thin over, and over. This generates the panic and the fear that terrorists want (Ã¢â¬Å"The Nature of TerrorismÃ¢â¬ ). They want to be feared, and the media is giving them what they want. not only that its effecting the United States people. The media shows terrorism in different countries almost everyday in the U.S. This broadcasting makes it seem that terrorism happens in our country, when it is actually very rare for the United States. Not only that, on some cases the media always stretches the truth a little to make it seem more exciting or more dangerous. It is a fact that terrorism is happening all over the world, mostly in the middle east, but that doesnt mean its going to happen here. It very well could, saying it canÃ¢â¬â¢t would be lying, but we cannot exaggerate a threat that is currently non-existent. People in the United States are affected by these media outlets and these attacks on our country. Making them paranoid that it will happen again, The United States is trying to help countries with terrorism, which is good but in the long run,Show MoreRelatedTerrorism and Political Violence by Alex Schmid1312 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Terrorism can be defined and viewed in many different ways. As discussed in Ã¢â¬Å"Terrorism and Political Violence,Ã¢â¬ by Alex Schmid, there are multiple frameworks in which terrorism can be defined (Schmid 2010, 197). In SchmidÃ¢â¬â¢s article, he discusses the five ways he feels terrorism can be looked at, terrorism as/and politics, terrorism as/and crime, terrorism as/and warfare, terrorism as/and communication and terrorism as/and religious fundamentalism (Schmid 2010, 197). This is interesting because itRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack 9 / 11 Essay1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrights to freedom and believed that whoever was responsible for this act of terrorism is held responsible. His values and beliefs can be seen as a conservatism ideology as he believes terrorists must be stopped and destroyed, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that militant Islamists can peacefully co-exist with the Western world, forever will be on going attacks on America implicated by Islamic terrorists (28). Conservatisms believe that terrorism posses one of the greatest threats to the United States of America (34)Read MoreChanges Caused by the Attacks of September 11, 2001 Essay1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The attacks of September 11th, 2001 were carried out by four different planes hijacked by 19 hijackers. One of the planes hit the North Twin Tower in New York City, and another hitting the South Twin Tower in New York City. One hitting the Pentagon and another crashed into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania with an unknown route. Over 2,900 people were killed in the nine-eleven attacks. These attacks were a changing point in American societ y because it increased the securityRead MoreThe Effects Of Hate Crimes Against Muslims978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOn September 11th of 2001, more than 3,000 people died during the terrorist attacks. The event changed the lives of not just the people whose loved ones died on that day, but also of those who belonged to the Islamic world. The experience of Muslims who lived in America in 2001 and those who were yet to come here would never be the same again. After 9/11, the number of hate crimes against Muslims in the United States increased and their everyday lives changed forever due to the rise of islamophobiaRead MoreOn September 11Th, 2001, Terrorists Hijacked Four Planes1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOn September 11th, 2001, terrorists hijacked four planes of American commercial airlines. Later same day, they have coordinated to deliver a devastating blow, crushing two planes in World Trade Center towers and one more in Pentagon. The responsibility for these gruesome acts has been cl aimed by terrorist organization Al-Qaeda. The damage the attacks have caused went way beyond three thousand lives of the civilians that were killed that day. These terrorist acts have caused dramatic changes onRead MoreTerrorism And The United Nations Security Council1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTerrorism by its very nature disrupts international peace and security through premeditated, political violence. The 11th September attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon disrupted the global economy. The attacks spawned and facilitated widespread personal fear, panic and economic dislocation (Bergen, 2002). According to the United Nations Security Council, one of the objectives of the terrorists was to create a state of global anarchy by means of influencing the conduct of governmentRead MoreThe Events of Septemeber 11th, 2011: 9/11 Essay726 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOn September 11th, 2001, the Islamic Extremist group, Al-Qaeda, had sent 20 terrorists to hijack three airliner jets to crash into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. A fourth jet was on route to the white house, but it crashed in the fields of Pennsylvania. Over three thousand people were killed during this tragic event. This major world event is referred as 9/11, which resulted in a major crackdown on terrorism. Jennifer Caverly, an 11th grade math teacher, thought 9/11 was a terrifying eventRead More Patriot Act Essays1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesterrorists before they strike, (President George W. Bush at signing of Patriot Act, 2001). The terrorists of today cannot be reasoned with. We must do whatever necessary to ensu re that there never will be another September 11th. Since the enactment of the Patriot Act, there have not been any major acts of terrorism committed on U.S. soil. If the Act had been established earlier, perhaps the tragedy of September 11th would have been prevented. The Patriot Act has applied common sense knowledge and resourcesRead MoreThe Connection between 9/11 and the Need for Foreign Oil Essay examples1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSeptember 11th, 2001 will always be a day that will be remembered. It was a day in history where time it seemed stood still, and one that became a moment of pronounced transformation. Today the United States and other parts of the world are still plagued by the viscosity of this tragedy; both through the wars that were established towards Iraq and Afghanistan over a decade ago, and by the continuous conflict in terms of who and why created the events that occurred on that fateful day. This analysisRead MorePolicing Is A Major Effect On The World Terr orist Attacks On September 11th1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout the world the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001 changed the way the world has looked at terrorism. Everything from policing to the way people board onto airplanes and travel via public transportation has changed in a tremendous way. Policing is a major effect that has changed at all-different training drills to be prepared for every situation for the different types of units just focusing on terrorism. The NYPD has changed in a huge way from that day. They have started over five
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ms. Van Michelson I would like to present this organizational proposal to you as the organization is facing 17% net loose in total income and demands to cut the organizations perks from 8 to 5 % so it will be crucial for us to bring an immediate and effective change in the compensation system of organization. We as the HRM team the below changes will prevent us from closing down international offices and will increase the overall revenue in 3 to 5 years. The main aspect of the strategy is that the all the changes that have been mentioned in the organization and the international operations will continue to affect us as a whole until the recession and the economy is recovered. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that the strategy I will refer best matches to theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The organization as a whole will still save almost 2% to 3% as part of their net income that is spent on pleasures and other comforts and if we can increase that savings to 4% to 5% this will greatly impact our net income. Second we must also look at the benefit packages that we offer and we pay a part of. I feel we need to evaluate it and possibly reduce the amount we pay towards the package and also look at all employees whom has a spouse with a job that offers benefits. That if their spouse offers insurance that they will be charge by us to cover them as well We must also take a look at the international employees as well; they will be part affected by this organizational change also. Recession is affecting every nation so the organization must and will make these changes throughout. Remember as we deliver the organization information that it does not matter if the employee is based in the United States or internationally this change will affect all until the organization recovers from the 17% net loss but we must also instill in them that the organization has no intention of laying off during these challenging times but the bi-yearly increases will stop and the yearly raises will be in p lace with a maximum cap of 5% in take place. It still will have an effect to employees as they will suffer from not receiving as high of raises and other incentives but it will benefit the organization by notShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Alexander s Alexander 1834 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThere was a troubled 17 year old boy, his name was Alexander. He grew up in a poor household with abusive parents. He struggled with anger issues, depression, drug abuse, and had an amazing girlfriend her name was Nadia. They went along like two peas in a pod. Nadia grew up in a troubled household as well. Her mother was a drug addict and was never home or there for her in general, and her father was never in the picture until she was 5 years old. She was taken away from her household by the copsRead MoreAlexander The Great Of Alexander Essay988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlexander became king of Macedonia after his the passing of his father, King Philip II. Within this essay, the information of Alexander will come from three different sources,and be c ompared to find the similarities in the history of Alexander amongst them. Alexand lived from 356 B.C.E. to 323 B.C.E., dying at the age of thirty-two. The three sources used have many similarities and broaden the history of Alexander, as they include more into the timeline of his life. Referring to the textbook, theRead MoreAlexander II And Alexander The Great1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessomeone who is good at planning tactics; Philip II and Alexander the Great would not fall under this name because they were not good at planning tactics, they were disputed to be the best at planning them. Alexander III the Great was born in 356 BC in the capital of Macedonia; Pella. Growing up Alexander watched his father turn Macedonia into a great military power . Philip II was the first to create an unstoppable Macedonian army and his son Alexander would further expand the efficiency and power ofRead MoreAlexander The Great Of Alexander IIi Of Macedon1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlexander The Great Alexander III of Macedon Riding Bucephalus Into Battle Alexander III of Macedon or Alexander The Great was born on 20/21 July 356 BC in Pella, Macedon. He was the son of the king of Macedon. Alexander was many things, he was a prince, a king, a general, and much more. AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s father was the King of Macedon, Philip II and his mother was his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth wife, Olympias, she was the daughter of Neoptolemus I, the king of Epirus. When Alexander was very young he was raisedRead MoreAlexander The Great Essay846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKonark Raithatha Alexander the Great Acted as ruler of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Alexander the Great unified Greece, regenerated the Corinthian League and occupied the Persian Territory. Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of Macedonia on July 20, 356 B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus. The youthful leader and his sibling were upraised in Pella s royal court. While growing up, alexander the dark-eyed and curly-headed hardlyRead MoreAlexander the Great 1054 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlexander the Great once said, Ã¢â¬Å"There is nothing impossible to he who triesÃ¢â¬ . AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s whole life seems to be based off this one quote. From the day he was only a young child till he transitioned into one of the greatest of men, which conquered and ruled the largest empire that ever existed in the world. He accomplished and influenced so much in the world that he is still not forgotten. From his achievements and his positive contributions to the world he is still remembered as a hero. AlexanderRead MoreAlexander Hamilton1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprimary authors of the Federalist Papers, and the loser of the infamous duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamiltons earlier career as a Continental Army officer is less well known. Yet Hamiltons first experience in public service is important, not only because it was the springboard to his later career, but because it also deeply influenced his values and thinkingÃ¢â¬ (Hamilton). Alexander Hamilton was born as a British subject on the island of Nevis in the West Indies on the 11th of JanuaryRead MoreAlexander the Great 1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlexander was born around 356 B.C. His mother was of royal lineage, as was his father, Philip II. When Alexander was fourteen, he studied under the Athenian philosopher, Aristotle. Perhaps no culture has ever produced a greater mind than AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s. So searching and profound was AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s work that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries A.D. much of the Christian church regarded his teachings as being divinely inspired. No subject was untouched by his contemplation. Philosophy, botany, geographyRead MoreAlexander The Great : Why Is Alexander Considered Great?1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesALEXANDER THE GREAT Why is alexander considered great? Alexander III of Macedon or commonly known as Alexander the Great was the conqueror and king of the Persian Empire which is the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. He was born on the 20/21st July 356 BC in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. While in reign from 336 to 323 B.C, he united the Greek city-states and led the Corinthian League. He also became the king of Persia, Babylon and Asia as well as created Macedonian colonies in the regionRead MoreAlexander Hamilton1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshesitation the first place to Hamilton (Kaplan 284)Ã¢â¬ . Those are the words of prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice De Talleyrand after spending a year in the United States. Those words of respect came because of the actions and influences that Alexander Hamilton had on a young United States that still have an effect today. Hamilton helped shaped and interpret the United States constitution and set up the financial system that lead to the United States rise to a global power. Bibliography Hamilton
IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been interested with lighthouses even before I watched this documentary film thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t hard or boring for me. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always wanted to go to a lighthouse and see how it flashes lights towards the sea. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing how it saves many lives of people and even animals that live underwater. We will write a custom essay sample on Bell Rock Lighthouse: Signal and Guide to Fishermen and Travelers or any similar topic only for you Order Now I find it wonderful learning how to build a lighthouse, well, technically. This Bell Rock lighthouse was built in a rock, a very dangerous rock according to people who came across it. The man behind this rock, Robert Stevenson, built this rock between 1807 and 1810. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing that this certain lighthouse still stand even to this day! Awesome, indeed! The history of Bell Rock was amusing and interesting as well in my opinion. How many ship wrecks had happened there before, I had no idea. Robert Stevenson, a man full of dreams, wanted to pursue building a lighthouse on Bell Rock. Although many people were against his plan, he stayed determined and thought of many ideas how to build a lighthouse without the waves crashing the base. That was one of the disadvantages since the lighthouse will be built in the sea. He based his idea to some already built lighthouses and hired almost sixty men to work on this project. They went to the sea, with a steady ship floating not so far away from the rock, they went with the ships to the rock and started digging for the base of the lighthouse. One thing I noticed about this story, the laborers were all religious men. They pray before and after working which is very admirable. The going back and forth routine has been a disadvantage to Stevenson as he were already behind time working with the base of the lighthouse. He decided, together with his men, to build a beacon in the rock which they can stay to. They started with the beacon not long. The question would be how long will it stay standing? Storms can sweep away the beacon and they were still behind schedule. Fortunately, there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t any super storms during the days they put the pieces one by one. The workers stayed loyal to Stevenson as he instructs them to do so. Of course, more dilemmas had befallen to Stevenson as his workers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to work during the Sabbath days. Some of them had lost faith to him and that made StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s task harder. They believed that doing work on a Sabbath is against God. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s disrespectful and disloyalty. They continued working for him though despite the lack of faith. Another dilemma came, two of the men died (not consecutively) while working. Their bodies werenÃ¢â¬â¢t found at all. It diminished the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem as they work with the lighthouse in the Bell Rock while still staying in the beacon. After all the difficulties relating to the building of the lighthouse in Bell Rock, they finished after three years with pure diligence and teamwork and of course, faith to God. However, Robert Stevenson, the man behind this magnificent project, had continued facing problems which seemed to be beyond his limit. Unfortunately, his twin and a daughter had died of whooping cough. That was the sad part here. If I were in his shoes, IÃ¢â¬â¢d probably die of depression. That was tough. But Stevenson was a tough man from the start. Even though he had a huge loss on his part, he still continued with the Bell Rock Lighthouse project. His work became his only focus. And after they finished it, itÃ¢â¬â¢s as if they have produced a work of nature. Something deeper in the lighthouse has touched many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. It was also considered as a tourist spot. Kudos to Stevenson for it! On the other hand, John Rennie, whom Stevenson had asked opinions about before, ranted that Stevenson didnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve his popularity since he was the one who suggested about the curve base of the lighthouse which wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t true at all since Stevenson was there all the time and he based it through anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s work. A lighthouse serves as a signal, a guide to all the fishermen and to all the travelers using the sea as their way of commuting. It serves as guidance for everyone who wants to go home and take the right path. Same for what happened to Stevenson and what he had went through by building this lighthouse on a risky rock. How to cite Bell Rock Lighthouse: Signal and Guide to Fishermen and Travelers, Papers
Question: Describe about the Management Information Systems for Study in Business Institutions. Answer: Efficiency and Effectiveness of MIS to students and Faculty The information management system of an industry is a dynamic scope of study in business institutions. The continuous change in technology, management, and business processes has created a base for the establishment of MIS in business organizations (Laudon, Laudon, and Elragal, 2011). The main examples of technologies that resulted from the adoption of MIS are the establishment of digital learning, Smartphone based education, and the creation of links in the social media. Management information systems apply the strategic utilization of systems and technologies that communicate different information to the students some of which are explained. MIS enables the sharing of information through systems grounded on technology with the maximum interest of stakeholders as they undergo their tutorials(Peppard Ward, 2016). Further, it enables the production of more effective integration into the institutions value-adding processes. It also enhances students cognitive processes in generating insight from information; they provide professionals and members in the field with the relevant data needed to support the growth, evaluation, and initiation of curriculum-based strategies. This has given birth to E-Services and online market that have raised giants in the market such as Amazon and Uber (Peppard Ward, 2016). Information systems can also be used in the management of emergencies. Live simulation exercises and computer-based simulations have a crucial role to play in emergency management. The requirements and need so of different stakeholders vary according to different phases of the emergency management. Several technologies exist for developing computer-based simulations. Two technologies have become popular in emergency management; virtual reality and agent based. Creating a simulator requires an understanding of how emergency personnel makes choices and decisions, how they diagnose situations, their method of communication and cooperation with fellow emergency staff and how all these things are affected by the crisis environment which is always changing (Walle et al., 2014). Stakeholders need to know the cognitive activities and processes of emergency personnel. Based on a cognitive engineering approach, we create a methodology for developing a computer-based simulator. We after that sh ow how this method can be applied in developing a simulator for creating rescue plans and new communication technologies to tackle real-life situations. Challenges Faced by Universities in Managing Information Systems Management information systems, however, face some challenges for example in organizations as they try to leverage their IT investment in line with their enterprise goals. One of these difficulties includes the management of organizational knowledge and outsourcing. Global market revenues from IT outsourcing were estimated to have grown rapidly and tremendously and while there are signs of strain , including rising wages and supply of suitably qualified graduates, India still has the world's fastest growing and largest offshoring sector, well dominated by IT services. There is also a question of privacy which considers issues of knowledge ownership when that knowledge, whether organizational or personal is transferred between organizations and individuals (Galliers and Leidner, 2014). High maintenance cost for the systems. Universities are faced with the challenge of managing the information systems so that they cope with the current market demands and also to ensure that the technologies adopted are sophisticated enough to be updated when a new innovative and creative idea is gotten by a student while carrying out his or her tutorials. References Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. (2014).Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge. Laudon, K. C., Laudon, J. P. (2011).Management information systems(Vol. 8). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Van De Walle, B., Turoff, M., Hiltz, S. R. (2014).Information systems for emergency management. Routledge. Ward, J., Peppard, J. (2016).The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley Sons.