Friday, September 4, 2020
Alter FILE 4 (MICROFINANCE WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT) - Essay Example capacity to take an interest in the choices that influence their lives at an individual level, which mirrors the Ã¢â¬Ëpower toÃ¢â¬â¢ that rises up out of the idea of empowerment1. (Would it be fitting with regards to Saudi to incorporate the aggregate level too (I feel that it could be too enormous a stretch and ideological. What do you think?) b) womenÃ¢â¬â¢s individual strengthening in both country and urban regions in the realm. This idea of strengthening is an overall topic that happens on numerous levels: 1) In a general sense, regardless of whether ladies customers have become monetarily and socially engaged because of the help reached out by the miniaturized scale account association. 2) More explicitly, I intend to investigate and evaluate the ramifications of approaching smaller scale money on (authority over assets, versatility, dynamic, haggling influence in the family unit) and financial strengthening (fearlessness, confidence) of ladies customers. To feature both the positive and negative parts of miniaturized scale money with regards to Saudi Arabia. A positive viewpoint, for instance, would be for the ladies to become confident or to be able to settle on significant choices about speculations identifying with their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Where as negative angles could imply that the ladies would need to work longer hours or endure an expansion in aggressive behavior at home, and so forth. Analyze how compelling miniaturized scale money can be in handling the issue of high joblessness rates for ladies in Saudi. So to examine whether miniaturized scale fund would one say one is of the best arrangements? On the off chance that yes/no, at that point why? To examine the qualities of BRJ miniaturized scale money recipients by utilizing their segment and small scale fund profile (age, proficiency, family size and type, occupation, advance size, endeavor, salary, utilization, reserve funds, and so on.), and break down how smaller scale account administrations has affected the prosperity (interest in kids training, wellbeing status, and healthful admission) of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s family. This, I accept, is fundamental in making a case for
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Tuesday, August 25, 2020
National films are fundamentally minimal, delicate and reliant on outside assistance. What esteem, assuming any, does a national film ha - Essay Example Everybody profits by an exuberant national film industry, from the individuals who are associated with making the motion pictures to the individuals who watch and even society in general, since thoughts are transmitted from movies to watchers to individuals around them. One extremely away from of the significance of budgetary help is the situation of Alberta, Canada. In 1973 Alberta made its own common film board to empower Alberta film creations at the guidance of the National Film Board. Different regions quickly followed the accomplishment of this arrangement, so Canada had both a National and Provincial film financing in every region, and it was significant, in light of the fact that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s areas are on the whole extraordinary. The ethnic and national legacy of various locales comes from various influxes of movement in addition to the additional societies of the First countries People. In spite of its exceptional accomplishment until 1996, Ralph Klein went on a cost remo ving binge and cut the subsidizing in 1996. The Alberta film industry went from an extremely effective $150-million out of 1995 to $50-million by 1997 (FRASER, 2011). 2/3s of the creation moved to British Columbia. Indeed, even the Alberta and national governments lost cash on this arrangement, since the Alberta business had made more duty pay then the expense of the financing. When the subsidizing evaporated the ability followed the business move to BC. Ã¢â¬Å"Film is fit for both painting and forming society.Ã¢â¬ (Bellucci, 2010) It is a very much investigated end that film that records parts of any contention takes care of a Ã¢â¬Å"us versus themÃ¢â¬ discernment and will in general become an image of culture and make a Ã¢â¬Å"ethos of conflictÃ¢â¬ (Benziman, 2013). This can have an intelligently equal impact on how the various groups see the contention, and on the way of life all in all. The contention shapes national character, while changes in national personality impac t the course of the contention. (Bar-Tal, Raviv, Raviv, and Dgani-Hirsh 2009; Bar-tal 2010) So films that delineate present or past clashes change how they are seen and how the members feel about themselves as well as other people. The contention doesn't need to be furnished, or even genuine, however simply its reality and the affirmation of the distinctions and the view of one being unrivaled impacts the national perspectives. This progressions the Ã¢â¬Å"National NarrativeÃ¢â¬ of the nations in question, which, thus changes future history. Since the EU was made to support reasonable exchange without duties. Any state endowment or tax breaks basically disrupts this guideline. Be that as it may, due to the apparent requirement for help of social exercises in the part expresses, the European Union presented the Maastricht Treaty. It permits part states to help autonomous movies imperative to their societies. The thought was to permit part states to help non-business movie making i nsofar as exchange and economies were not straightforwardly influenced. In any case, a few issues created when characterizing what sorts of movies would qualify. France and the UK were the principle protesters. France believes all film to be social and fundamental, so needs to help all film, even business creations. The formation of a meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"difficult filmsÃ¢â¬ for starting ventures, whach are viewed as deserving of help, was insufficient for them. The UK received a point by point meaning of a Ã¢â¬Å"difficult filmÃ¢â¬ utilizing the chance of benefit, the size of the intended interest group and the prevalence of the topic as measures. Fundamentally, the thought was to
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Saturday, August 22, 2020
Ladies like Chanel Bags - Essay Example In a period when extravagance items have been the subject of serious conversation and discussion, current buyers are happy to offer significantly higher measures of cash for extravagance items as a showcase of a specific item carries eminence to the proprietor separated from the useful utility. Extravagance things are turning into a need as in excess of 51 percent ladies in Tokyo buy Chanel sacks. It is further critical to make reference to that extravagance utilization is affected by elements, for example, brand picture, quality, design, store climate and supporter status. There are differentiating sees from Vigneron and Johnson who accept that arrangement of extravagance items, libertine and fussbudgets are progressively intrigued by delight gotten from the utilization of extravagance items and less inspired by cost as opposed to the nature of item, and its exhibition which leaves the discussion open for conversation whether extravagance items are purchased for quality or only for esteem. The market for an extravagance item is expanding with expanding pay among the center and high society which powers the makers to give in vogue things to its buyers which are tough and used ideally. Schroeder (1291) referenced that run of the mill turns in a workmanship, craftsmen, and feel in the executives and promoting regularly include badly characterized grabbing for development, inventiveness or play. The feasibility of a design brand is needy upon the viability and propriety of the choices of those answerable for its administration.
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Beside his stunning history as a grown-up, Thomas Alva Edison experienced a similarly energizing adolescence. Thomas Edison was conceived in Milan, Ohio on February 11, 1847. At that point, his dad was proprietor of an effective shingle and wood organization. Nonetheless, with new railways being worked through Milan, his dad lost clients to the greater organizations that started to open. The EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s had to move to Port Huron, where he initially started his instruction. At the point when he was just seven years of age his instructor, the Reverend G.B. Engle, believed Thomas to be a dull understudy and was awful in math. Following three months of school his instructor called him confounded, which means befuddled or stirred up. Thomas raged home. The following day, Nancy Edison took Thomas class kickoff to converse with Reverend Engle. He revealed to her that Thomas couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t learn. His mom turned out to be so furious with the severe Reverend that she chose to self-teach h im. Sooner or later his mom, a previous instructor herself, perceived his uncommon capacities to reason. She immediately got him inspired by History and Classic books. Thomas, be that as it may, was oddly pulled in to the subject of science. By the age of ten Thomas Edison had just been testing and at this point possessed a sizable amount of synthetic substances. Sadly, his examinations were frequently very costly and he discovered it his obligation to pay for them. Since he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to class, he had a lot of time to acquire cash without anyone else. At the point when he was just twelve, he started selling papers on the Grand Trunk Railway; he even printed the papers himself. He spent all that he earned on books and synthetic compounds. After around one year, his mom turned out to be so tired of the commotions of detonating containers, the scents of consuming, and smoke filling the house that he was no longer permitted to play out his trials at home. Fortunately, he was offered authorization to move to his lab into the train stuff vehicle. He would have the option to explore during the long five-hour delay in Detroit. ... Free Essays on Edison Free Essays on Edison Beside his stunning history as a grown-up, Thomas Alva Edison experienced a similarly energizing adolescence. Thomas Edison was conceived in Milan, Ohio on February 11, 1847. At that point, his dad was proprietor of a fruitful shingle and timber organization. Be that as it may, with new railways being worked through Milan, his dad lost clients to the greater organizations that started to open. The EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s had to move to Port Huron, where he initially started his training. At the point when he was just seven years of age his educator, the Reverend G.B. Engle, believed Thomas to be a dull understudy and was awful in math. Following three months of school his instructor called him discombobulated, which means confounded or stirred up. Thomas raged home. The following day, Nancy Edison took Thomas class kickoff to converse with Reverend Engle. He disclosed to her that Thomas couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t learn. His mom turned out to be so furious with the exacting Reverend that she chose to se lf-teach him. Inevitably his mom, a previous educator herself, perceived his strange capacities to reason. She immediately got him inspired by History and Classic books. Thomas, be that as it may, was peculiarly pulled in to the subject of science. By the age of ten Thomas Edison had just been testing and at this point possessed a sizable amount of synthetic concoctions. Shockingly, his examinations were regularly very costly and he discovered it his obligation to pay for them. Since he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to class, he had a lot of time to acquire cash without anyone else. At the point when he was just twelve, he started selling papers on the Grand Trunk Railway; he even printed the papers himself. He spent all that he earned on books and synthetic compounds. After around one year, his mom turned out to be so tired of the commotions of detonating recepticles, the scents of consuming, and smoke filling the house that he was no longer permitted to play out his tests at home. Fortunately, he was offered authorization to move to his lab into the train stuff vehicle. He would have the option to test during the long five-hour delay in Detroit. ...
Posted by Kyong Bourque at 5:47 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Definition and Examples of Progymnasmata in Rhetoric The progymnasmata areÃ¢ handbooks of starter expository activities that acquaint understudies with fundamental logical ideas and procedures. Additionally called theÃ¢ gymnasma. In old style expository preparing, the progymnasmata were organized with the goal that the understudy moved from severe impersonation to a progressively imaginative merging of the regularly divergent worries of speaker, subject, and crowd (Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 1996). EtymologyFrom the Greek, before works out The Exercises This rundown of 14 activities is drawn from the progymnasmata handbook composed by Aphthonius of Antioch, a fourth-century rhetorician. fablenarrativeanecdote (chreia)proverb (maxim)refutationconfirmationcommonplaceencomiuminvectivecomparison (syncrisis)characterization (pantomime or ethopoeia)description (ekphrasis)thesis (theme)defend/assault a law (thought) Perceptions The Enduring Value of the ProgymnasmataThe handbooks of progymnasmata may . . . intrigue current instructors of sythesis, for they present an arrangement of assignments in perusing, composing, and talking which slowly increment in trouble and in development of thought from basic narrating to argumentation, joined with investigation of abstract models. Thusly, the activities were positively compelling in giving understudies for a considerable length of time verbal aptitudes that numerous understudies presently appear to be less frequently to create. Since the activities were so totally organized, outfitting the understudy with arrangements of comments regarding numerous matters, they are available to the analysis that they would in general inculcate understudies in customary qualities and hinder singular innovativeness. Just Theon, among essayists on progymnasmata, proposes that understudies may be gotten some information about their own encounters something that didn't again turn int o a subject of basic structure until the sentimental period. By the by, it is unjustifiable to portray the conventional activities as restraining all analysis of customary qualities. Undoubtedly, a significant component of the activities was weight on learning nullification or reply: how to take a conventional story, account, or proposal and contend against it. In the event that anything, the activities may have would in general empower the possibility that there was an equivalent add up to be said on different sides of any issue, an ability rehearsed at a later phase of instruction in argumentative debate.(George A. Kennedy, Progymnasmata: Greek Textbooks of Prose Composition and Rhetoric. Brill, 2003) Sequenced ExercisesThe progymnasmata stayed well known for such a long time since they are deliberately sequenced: they start with basic rewords . . . what's more, end with refined activities in deliberative and criminological [also known as judicial] talk. Each progressive exercise utilizes an aptitude rehearsed in the former one, however every include some new and increasingly troublesome creating task. Antiquated educators were enamored with looking at the evaluated trouble of the progymnasmata to the activity utilized by Milo of Croton to bit by bit increment his quality: Milo lifted a calf every day. Every day the calf became heavier, and every day his quality developed. He kept on lifting the calf until it turned into a bull.(S. Crowley and D. Hawhee, Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. Pearson, 2004)The Progymnasmata and the Rhetorical SituationThe progymnasmata advances from solid, story errands to digest, influential ones; from tending to the class and instructor to tending to an open crowd, for example, the law court; from building up a solitary recommended perspective to inspecting a few and contending for a self-decided postulation. The components of a logical situationaudience, speaker, and suitable languageare included and differ starting with one exercise then onto the next. Inside activities subordinate points or topoi are called for, for example, representation, definition, and examination. However understudies have opportunity to choose their subjects, grow them, and expect a job or persona as they see fit.(John Hagaman, Modern Use of the Progymnasmata in Teaching Rhetorical Invention. Talk Review, Fall 1986) Technique and ContentThe progymnasmata . . . offered Roman educators a deliberate yet adaptable apparatus for steady improvement of understudy capacities. The youthful essayist/speaker is driven bit by bit into progressively complex compositional undertakings, his opportunity of articulation depending, incomprehensibly, on his capacity to follow the structure or example set by his lord. Simultaneously he ingests thoughts of profound quality and idealistic open help from the subjects talked about, and from their suggested intensifications on topics of equity, practicality, and so forth. When he arrives at the activity of Laws, he has since a long time ago figured out how to see the two sides of an inquiry. He has additionally amassed a store of models, apothegms, accounts, and chronicled occurrences which he can utilize later outside the school.(James J. Murphy, Habit in Roman Writing Instruction. A Short History of Writing Instruction: From Ancient Greece to Modern America, ed. by Ja mes J. Murphy. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001)Decline of the Progymnasmata[W]hen, in the late seventeenth century, preparing in the three old style genera started to lose significance and the deliberate advancement of Latin topics through impersonation and intensification started to lose favor, the progymnasmata fell into sharp decrease. Regardless, the preparation managed by the progymnasmata has left a solid impact on Western writing and oratory.(Sean Patrick ORourke, Progymnasmata. Reference book of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication From Ancient Times to the Information Age, ed. by Theresa Enos. Taylor Francis, 1996) Articulation: master gim NAHS mama ta
Posted by Kyong Bourque at 7:13 PM
Sunday, August 9, 2020
Understanding the Psychology of Positive Thinking Happiness Print Understanding the Psychology of Positive Thinking By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD on November 12, 2019 facebook twitter linkedin Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments. Learn about our Medical Review Board Carly Snyder, MD Updated on November 26, 2019 Dougal Waters/Digital Vision/Getty Images More in Self-Improvement Happiness Meditation Stress Management Spirituality Holistic Health Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All Do you tend to see the glass as half empty or half full? You have probably heard that question plenty of times. Your answer relates directly to the concept of positive thinking and whether you have a positive or negative outlook on life. Positive thinking plays an important role in positive psychology, a subfield devoted to the study of what makes people happy and fulfilled. Research has found that positive thinking can aid in stress management and even plays an important role in your overall health and well-being.?? What Is Positive Thinking? Most folks are about as happy as they make up their minds to be. - Abraham Lincoln What exactly is positive thinking? You might be tempted to assume that it implies seeing the world through rose-colored lenses by ignoring or glossing over the negative aspects of life. However, positive thinking actually means approaching lifes challenges with a positive outlook.?? Positive thinking does not necessarily mean avoiding or ignoring the bad things; instead, it involves making the most of the potentially bad situations, trying to see the best in other people, and viewing yourself and your abilities in a positive light. Some researchers, including positive psychologist Martin Seligman, often frame positive thinking in terms of explanatory style.?? Your explanatory style is how you explain why events happened. People with an optimistic explanatory style tend to give themselves credit when good things happen, but typically blame outside forces for bad outcomes. They also tend to see negative events as temporary and atypical. On the other hand, individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style often blame themselves when bad things happen, but fail to give themselves adequate credit for successful outcomes.?? They also have a tendency to view negative events as expected and lasting. As you can imagine, blaming yourself for events outside of your control or viewing these unfortunate events as a persistent part of your life can have a detrimental impact on your state of mind. Positive thinkers are more apt to use an optimistic explanatory style, but the way in which people attribute events can also vary depending upon the exact situation. For example, a person who is generally a positive thinker might use a more pessimistic explanatory style in particularly challenging situations, such as at work or at school. Health Benefits In recent years, the so-called power of positive thinking has gained a great deal of attention thanks to self-help books such as The Secret. While these pop-psychology books often tout positive thinking as a sort of psychological panacea, empirical research has found that there are many very real health benefits linked to positive thinking and optimistic attitudes.?? According to the Johns Hopkins Medicine, positive thinking is linked to a wide range of health benefits including:Longer life spanLess stressLower rates of depressionIncreased resistance to the common coldBetter stress management and coping skillsLower risk of cardiovascular disease-related deathIncreased physical well-beingBetter psychological health One study of 1,558 older adults found that positive thinking could also reduce frailty during old age.?? Clearly, there are many benefits of positive thinking, but why exactly does positive thinking have such a strong impact on physical and mental health. One theory is that people who think positively tend to be less affected by stress. Another possibility is that people who think positively tend to live healthier lives in general; they may exercise more, follow a more nutritious diet and avoid unhealthy behaviors. Difference From Positive Psychology While the terms positive thinking and positive psychology are sometimes used interchangeably, it is important to understand that they are not the same thing. First, positive thinking is about looking at things from a positive point of view. Positive psychology certainly tends to focus on optimism, but it also notes that while there are many benefits to thinking positively, there are actually times when more realistic thinking is more advantageous.?? For example, in some situations, negative thinking can actually lead to more accurate decisions and outcomes.?? Researchers have also found that in some cases, optimistic thinking can improve physical health.?? A Word From Verywell Even if you are not a natural-born optimist, there are things you can do to learn how to think positive and become a positive thinker. One of the first steps is to focus on your own inner monologue and to pay attention to your self-talk.
Posted by Kyong Bourque at 6:53 AM
Wednesday, June 24, 2020
CHAPTER 2 Employee innovation behaviour has been defined as the intentional behaviour of an individual to introduce and/or apply new ideas, products, processes, and procedures to his or her work role, unit, or organization (West Farr, 1989, 1990b). Examples of employee innovative behaviour in the workplace include introducing new technologies and techniques, suggesting new ways to achieve objectives, trying new ways of performing work tasks, and facilitating the implementation of new ideas. Several points in the definition on employee innovation proposed by West and Farr (1989, 1990b) are worth noting. Firstly, employee innovative behaviours include behaviours pertaining to both the introduction and the application or implementation of new ideas, products, processes and procedures by the employees. This definition thus includes a variety of behaviours pertaining to the innovation processes in an organisation. Secondly, this definition takes into account both technical innovations (the introduction or application of new technologies, products, and services) and administrative innovations (the introduction or application of new procedures and policies) (Van de Ven, 1986). Technical innovations are innovations that occur in the primary work activity of the organization; administrative innovations are innovations that occur in the social system of an organization (Daft, 1978; Damanpour Evan, 1984). Examples of technical innovation include the implementation of an idea for a new product or the introduction of new elements in an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s production process. Examples of administrative innovation include the implementation of new policies of recruitment, allocating resources, and reward. Individual innovative behaviours could be behaviours pertaining to the introduction or implementation of both technical and administrative innovations. Thirdly, the new ideas, products, processes, and procedures being introduced or implemented do not have to be absolutely new to the field. They only need to be new relative to the unit of adoption. For example, an employee is innovating when he introduces an IT system that has not been used in his organization before. This technology doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t have to be a new invention and could have been used in other organizations before. And finally, innovative behaviours include not only those behaviours leading to innovations within the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role but also behaviours that initiate or facilitate innovations in higher level units such as the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work group, department, or the entire organization (West Farr 1989. 2.2 Construction of the Terminology Used in the Dissertation Several similar terminologies to employee innovation exist in the literature. A brief discussion about how those terminologies are similar to and different from the framework of employee innovative behaviour will prevent potential confusion and help our understanding of employee innovative behaviour. One similar construct is individual creative behaviour. Creativity refers to the production and introduction of novel and useful ideas, products, or processes (Amabile, 1988; Oldham Cummings, 1996; Shalley, 1995; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993). Individual creative behaviours are behaviours pertaining to the generation of such novel and useful ideas, products, or processes. Creative behaviour is closely linked to innovative behaviour and it can be considered as one type of innovative behaviour. However, innovative behaviours include a broader range of behaviours than just creative behaviours. Innovative behaviours include both the introduction of self-generated ideas (creative behaviou r) and the introduction and implementation of new ideas generated by other people and organizations. Creativity requires absolute novelty of the idea whereas innovation only requires relative novelty of the idea to the unit of adoption (King, 1990; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993).Therefore, adopting a new policy from another organization to the current organization would be innovative but not creative. Also, the definition of creativity includes an inherent requirement for the idea or product to be useful. The phenomenon of innovative behaviour doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t include a usefulness judgment in itself. An innovative attempt could result in different possible consequences for the organization. Yet an ineffective innovation is still an innovation. Also, creative behaviour concerns the generation of ideas whereas innovative behaviour includes both the generation or introduction and the application or implementation of the new ideas (Amabile, 1988; Scott Bruce, 1994; Zhou, 1998 , 2003). Another related concept to employee innovation is role innovation. Role innovation is the introduction of significant new behaviours into a pre-existing role (West, 1987a, 1987b). Role innovation is usually studied in the context of job change and relocation (e.g., Allen Meyer, 1990; Ashford Saks, 1996; Munton West, 1995; Nicholson, 1984; West Rushton, 1989). The reference for comparison in role innovation is the pre-existing job role. It is considered an act of role innovation, if the way the current job holder does his job is different from the way the previous job holder did it or from the way other people currently do the same job in the same organization. Role innovation is related to innovative behaviour in the sense that introducing new behaviours and procedures into an existing work role is one type of innovative behaviour. However, these two concepts are still different. Role innovation only changes processes within an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role. Innovative behaviours, however, is not limited to innovations occurring in the work role alone but also in the department, unit, and the organization. In addition, all innovative behaviours cannot be considered as role innovation. For example, developing new ideas and products is part of the job profile for some organizational positions (e.g. the RD department). People in those job positions routinely introduce new products and procedures into the organization and therefore frequently engage in innovative behaviour. However, since it is part of their existing job or work role, those behaviours are not considered as role innovation. Another similar concept is personal initiative. Frese, Kring, Soose, and Zempel (1996: 38) defined personal initiative as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa behavior syndrome resulting in an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s taking an active and self-starting approach to work and going beyond what is formally required in a given job. More specifically, personal initiative is characterized by the following aspects: it (1) is consistent with the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s mission; (2) has a long-term focus; (3) is goal-directed and action-oriented; (4) is persistent in the face of barriers and setbacks, and (5) is self-starting and proactive.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Some individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s behaviour in the workplace such as voluntary suggestion of new ideas to the organization can be seen as both personal initiative and innovative behaviours. However, not all personal initiative behaviours are innovative behaviours. Personal initiative could include both quantitative and qualitative initiatives. Quanti tative initiatives are those activities that only require additional energy. Those activities do result into the application of new ideas, products, and procedures into the workplace and therefore are not innovative behaviours. Moreover, personal initiative is voluntary in nature of the behaviour whereas innovative behaviours do not have to be beyond the formal job requirement. In a nutshell, creative behaviour, role innovation and personal initiative are all related to but different from the construct of individual innovative behaviour. Differentiating these constructs will further clarify the concept of employee innovative behaviour. At the same time, the existing similarities suggest the possibility that the literatures devoted to these related constructs could inform research on innovative behaviours. 2.3 Employee Innovation and Image Outcome Expectations Why do employees innovate in an organisation? A piece of wisdom reiterated by learning theories and motivation theories is the importance of outcome expectations in determining human innovative behaviour. The operant conditioning theory of learning stresses the importance of the Law of Effect, which states that behaviour which appears to lead to a positive consequence tends to be repeated, while behaviour that leads to a negative consequence tends not to be repeated (Thorndike, 1911). BanduraÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social learning theory (1977) proposed that people learn about the consequences expected for certain behaviours not only from their own experiences but also from observing others in the workplace. To summarize, operant conditioning theory and social learning theory advocates that people develop outcome expectations of certain behaviours either from direct experiences or from vicarious learning. The outcome expectations, in turn, guide their future behaviour in the workplace. The effects of outcome expectations on behaviour are more directly addressed in VroomÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectancy theory of motivation (1964). The renowned expectancy theory of motivation suggests that an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motivational force to perform an act is determined by his expectancies that the act will be followed by the attainment of certain first-level outcomes (expectancy), that these first-level outcomes will lead to certain second-level outcomes (instrumentality), and the value of these second-level outcomes (valence). The importance of outcome expectations is depicted by the concept of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âexpectancy,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? which is a subjective belief concerning the likelihood that a behaviour will lead to particular first-level outcomes (Vroom, 1964). A similar observation of the importance of outcome expectations in affecting individual behavioural intentions can also be found in Ajzen and FishbeinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory of reasoned action (1980). Outcome expectations guide innovative behaviours in the workplace. In the case of employee innovative behaviour, what are the major outcome expectations that affect employee innovation at work? Two major types of outcome expectations will impact employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision to engage in innovative behaviours: expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes. Expected performance outcomes are employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ expectations of how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the performance or efficiency of the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role or unit. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect other organization membersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ perceptions of him or her. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the perceptions of the other members of the organisation towards him or her. The linkage of performance and image outcomes at the individual level is comparable to the differentiation between organization efficiency and legitimacy as suggested by institutional theory (Meyer Rowan, 1977). The organizations compete for social as well as economic fitness in the institutional perspective (DiMaggio Powell, 1983). Whereas the economic fitness or organization efficiency frontier enhance the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s profits and competitive advantages, social fitness brings legitimacy which helps the organization gain stability, resources and hence survival. Several studies have recently brought such an institutional perspective into the study of innovation processes by highlighting the impacts of both efficiency outcomes and potential legitimacy outcomes on innovation adoption decisions. Tolbert and Zucker (1983) found that an early adoption of civil service is related to internal organizational requirements while late adoption is related to institutional de finitions of legitimate structural form Westphal, Gulati and Shortell (1997) in their research work found out that early adopters can customize Total Quality Management (TQM) practices for efficiency gains, while later adopters gain legitimacy from adopting the normative form of TQM programs. Results from both the empirical studies conclude that an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to adopt an innovation is influenced by both internal efficiency considerations (i.e., the efficiency outcome) and external legitimacy considerations (i.e., the image outcome). The results not only supports the importance of considering both outcomes in the innovation process but also suggests that their relative impact on innovation adoption will vary in different situations. Abrahamson (1991) suggested a typology that highlights the dominant efficient choice paradigm and other less dominant perspectives that can be used to guide innovation research. The dominant paradigm is the efficient choice perspective (i.e., the efficiency-oriented perspective), which conceptualises organizations as rational entities who always adopt innovations that can improve organization efficiency or performance. On the other hand, two other perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" the fashion and fad perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" stresses on the importance of social-political processes by suggesting that organizations sometimes adopt innovations for their symbolic meaning, signalling innovativeness, rather than to boost organizationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ economic performance. The impacts of expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes on employee innovative behaviour represents the efficiency-oriented and the social-political motives for employee innovation, respectively (s ee Figure 1). Figure 1 Outcome Expectations and Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for those marked with negative signs, all links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a). 2.4 The Efficiency-Oriented Perspective of Expected Performance Outcomes: The efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding employee innovation behaviour suggests that one major reason people innovate is to bring performance gains. Although assumed to be one of the major motivational reasons in this dominating paradigm, few studies have directly tested the effect of such expected performance outcomes on innovative behaviour. This dissertation provides a hypothesis for testing the outcome of the effects of such expectation and on employee innovation behaviour at work. Expected image outcomes have been considered different from the concept of subjective norm in the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen Fishbein, 1980) in this study. The subjective norm concept refers to a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief about whether significant others think that he or she should engage in the behaviour. Although both the concepts are related to potential social outcomes of employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ behaviour, expected image outcomes refer to expected perceptions from a po tential audience (i.e., other employees in the organization) rather than the concern for the approval or disapproval of others. Image outcome expectations can be influenced by other factors as well such as relationship quality, peer expectations, and job requirements. The Literature available on impression management provides an interesting distinction between defensive and assertive impression management (Arkin, 1981; Schlenker, 1980). Tetlock Manstead (1985:61) provides a good discussion on this distinction: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDefensive impression management is to protect an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ established social image; it is triggered by negative affective states such as embarrassment and shame. Whereas assertive impression management is designed to improve an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ social image; it is triggered by perceived opportunities for creating favourable impressions on others.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Therefore the difference between avoiding image risks and pursuing image enhancement represent different affective states and individual motives. Consulting the impression management literature, the dissertation hypothesizes two major types of image outcome expectations that may affect an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to engage in innovative behaviour. Firstly, expected image loss risk will constrain people from demonstrating innovative behaviour. An employee may decide to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âplay it safeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? and try and avoid being innovative in order to look socially appropriate and prevent potential image loss. Showing such a tendency to avoid negative evaluations represents the protective self-presentation (Arkin, 1981) or defensive impression management motive (Tetlock Manstead, 1985). The self-protective motive shows that expected image risks will restrict the tendency of an employee to engage in innovative behaviour (refer Figure 1). On the other hand, people may feel the need to innovate because they may see potential opportunity to enhance work efficiency. For example, a high-performing employee may want to introduce a new work technique because he or she perceives opportunities to further improve efficiency. Contrary to the problem-driven construct this latter construct is consistent with the more contemporary vision-guided change model (Cooperrider Srivastva, 1987; Cummings Worley, 2005; Watkins Mohr, 2001) and possibility-driven logic of change (Ford Ford, 1994). This approach suggests that changes can be initiated not only to solve existing problems but also to pursue further improvement toward an ideal vision. Efficiency and performance improvement increases the competitiveness and success of an employee. Regardless of the purpose being is to fix existing performance problems or to explore potential benefits, people will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour if they expect that the introduction of new ideas, products, procedures, or processes would bring positive performance outcomes to his or her work or job role (refer Figure 1). Therefore expected performance outcomes represent the efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding innovation. This approach suggests that people innovate because they expect positive results in performance gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the efficiency-oriented perspective of expected performance outcomes: Hypothesis 1: Expected positive performance outcomes are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.5 The Social-Political Perspective of Expected Image Outcomes Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviour would impact the perceptions of the other members of the organisation about him or her. Ashford, Rothbard, Piderit, and Dutton (1998), consider expected image outcomes as Employees may engage in innovative behaviour as a conscious effort to improve image. The employees engaging in innovative behaviour to pursue image gain depict the assertive impression management motive (Rioux Penner, 2001). An apt example will be employees suggesting new ideas to managers to appear competent and conscientious. Sutton and HargadonÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1996) designed a study to analyse self-enhancing motive and engineersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ competitive behaviours in brainstorming sessions. The self enhancing motive suggests that expected image gains will increase employee innovative behaviour at work (refer Figure 1). In line with the social-political perspective in understanding innovati on, both avoiding image risks (the self-protective impression management motive) and pursuing image gains (the self-enhancing impression management motive) emphasize the importance of social-political considerations in determining employee innovative behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 2(a): Expected image risks are negatively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 2(b): Expected image gains are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6 Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Performance and image outcome expectations are proximal determinants which determine employee innovation in the workplace and also serve as intermediate processes by which more distal individual differences and contextual antecedents affect employee innovation capabilities (West Farr, 1989). An analysis of how distal antecedent factors influence expectations of outcomes and therefore employee innovative behaviour is important for at least two reasons. Firstly, it addresses the question of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? distal individual differences of employees and contextual factors affect employee innovation behaviour by examining the intermediate psychological processes. Secondly, it explains the sources of variance in employee performance and image outcome expectations across individuals and situations. Without the intention of providing an all exclusive list, the following five distal antecedent factors were considered as especially important for employee innovation behaviour: Perceived organization support for innovation, supervisor relationship quality, innovativeness as job requirement, reputation as innovative, and dissatisfaction with the status quo. These aforementioned antecedents were chosen because they are among the most studied in the literature and they represent different angles to understand employee innovative behaviour. The five proximal antecedents were taken together to form the conceptual model for testing employee innovation behaviour in this dissertation. Figure 2 Diagram of Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for all those links marked with negative signs, all other links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a) 2.6.1 Perceived Organization Support for Innovation Organization support for innovation in terms of pro-innovation climate, resources, and time allocation, is one of the primary environmental qualities that promote innovation and creativity (Amabile, 1988; Kanter, 1988). This dissertation explores performance and image outcome expectations as important intermediate processes and tries to explain why such organization support affects innovative behaviour. If an organizational environment favours change rather than tradition for its growth and development, its members will seek to initiate change in order to be culturally appropriate (Farr Ford, 1990: 73). Similarly, an organizational climate that promotes innovation will encourage employee to engage in innovative behaviours because such climate legitimates experimentation (West Wallace, 1991) and reduces image risk involved in such behaviours (Ashford et al., 1998). An organization climate promoting innovation delivers expectancies and instrumentalities (Scott Bruce, 1994) so that the employees in that organization understand that being innovative is a desirable image. Reduced potential image loss risks and increased potential image gain environment encourage employees to engage in more innovative behaviours when perceived organization support for innovation is high. Employees in an organization supporting innovation may want to engage in more innovative behaviours not only because of the potential image outcomes but also because they have higher expectations for positive performance outcomes resulting from such innovative behaviours. A favourable organization climate for innovation demonstrates the belief that innovation will benefit the organization in developing and achieve the pinnacle of success. Having such beliefs embedded in the culture of the organization will influence individual attitudes and beliefs through the organization and boost innovation processes. SchneiderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1987) attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework suggests people attracted to and remaining in the organization are likely to be those individuals who share basic beliefs with the organization. Hence, it is logical to expect that compared with organisations not promoting innovative behaviours, people in organizations with pro-innovation climates are also more likely to have pro-innovation individual beliefs. In other words, they are more likely to be satisfied and believe that initiating innovations will benefit the efficiency and performance of their work. Such beliefs in positive performance outcomes serve as another motive for employee behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 3(a): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(b): Perceived organization support for innovation is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(c): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.2 Supervisor Relationship Quality A quality manager-employee relationship has been found out to be an important contextual factor on employee innovation and creativity (Scott Bruce, 1994; Tierney, Farmer, Graen, 1999). The prevalence of a quality relationship with supervisor will influence employee innovative behaviour indirectly through its influence on performance and image outcome expectations. A quality relationship between the managers and the employees will increase an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief that his or her innovative behaviour will result in performance and efficiency gains. The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that subordinates who have high-quality relationships with their supervisors are provided greater resources in the workplace (e.g., privileged information, work support) and decision latitude in return for greater loyalty and commitment (Dansereau, Graen, Haga, 1975; Graen, 1976; Graen, Novak, Sommerkamp, 1982). Therefore, employees with high-quality supervisor relationships are more likely to engage in innovative behaviour and be confident that their actions will result in performance and efficiency gains. Desire and motivation of the employees influence what he or she perceives (Gilbert, 1998; Markus Zajonc, 1985; Postman, Bruner, McGinnies, 1948). Research studies undertaken previously shows that supervisors tend to evaluate the employees they like and trust in a more positive way (Cardy Dobbins, 1986; Judge Ferris, 1993; Wayne Liden, 1995). When a supervisor likes and believes in the employee, he or she is more likely to think positively about the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ideas and believe such ideas are meaningful and significant (Zhou Woodman, 2003). Previous research on attributions concept indicates that when the supervisor likes or empathizes with his sub-ordinates, he or she is more likely to attribute positive outcomes to the sub-ordinatesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dispositional causes and negative outcomes to situational causes (Green Mitchell, 1979; Regan, Straus, Fazio, 1974; Regan Totten, 1975). It is expected that good people will perform good actions, and bad peopl e will perform bad actions. Thus when liked characters do good things or disliked actors do bad things, we attribute the action to characteristics of the character (Heider, 1958). Therefore, when perceiving a good relationship with the supervisor, an employee will feel more confident that his new ideas will receive acceptance and favourable evaluations from his supervisor, resulting in higher possibilities for image gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the supervisor relationship quality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 4(a): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(b): Supervisor relationship quality is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(c): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected image gains associated with innovative behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.3 Innovativeness as a Job Requirement The requirements of a job have been identified by researchers as an activating force for innovation (Kanter, 1988) and a primary factor in inducing employee creativity (Shalley, Gilson, Blum, 2000; Tierney Farmer, 2002). This dissertation explores the mechanisms through which perceived job requirement for innovativeness encourages individual innovation by its influences on both expected performance and image outcomes. The innovative requirement of a job is determined not only by the objective nature of the job position (e.g., RD scientists versus technicians) but also by the subjective attitude of the job holder, which can be influenced by factors including the job holderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social environment as suggested by the social information processing theory (Salancik Pfeffer, 1978). Perceived innovativeness as a part of job requirement will also encourage innovative behaviour by minimising the concerns for image risks and increasing image gain expectations. Firstly, it val idates innovative behaviours as officially acceptable and socially appropriate. The job requirement serves as a contextual influence that justifies the employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ innovative behaviour. Thus, the employees do not need to provide reasons to explain their innovative behaviours and do not need to be concerned about being seen as behaving inappropriately. Secondly, previous research evidence shows that an audience is less critical and more receptive to change-initiated or innovative behaviours from people whose functional background or job position supports such innovative behaviours. Ashford and colleagues (1998) found out in their research that functional background-issue fit negatively related to image risk from selling issues. In the same way, Daft (1978) found out that organizations appeared to adopt technical ideas from professionals (in that case, teachers) and administrative ideas from administrators. Applying the same logic here, managers and fellow co-workers w ill be more receptive to the innovative behaviours of employees in positions requiring innovativeness and will consider their new ideas as more valid and well-grounded, resulting in lower image risk and higher potential of image gain for the innovative employees. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 5(a): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(b): Innovativeness as job requirement is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(c): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.4 Reputation of an Employee as Innovative The employees are considered as more socially appropriate and legitimate when their behaviours match categorizations and expectations of the organisation where they work in (Zelditch, 2001). The existing literature on impression management suggests that the impressions people try to create are affected by their current image in the society (Leary Kowalski, 1990; Schlenker, 1980). Behaviours which are consistent with the expectations and reputations (especially desirable ones) are socially legitimized, and behaviours against those expectations run the risk of being looked down upon by the people in the society. The employees who are not expected to be innovative in their work may hesitate to demonstrate innovative behaviour because they will be afraid to act against social expectations and to be considered as out of line or outcasts. On the contrary, an employee who enjoys the reputation of being innovative among his fellow workers will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour because his or her reputation tends to legitimize the behaviour and reduce concerns for inappropriateness. Therefore, employees having such a reputation will be encouraged to show innovative behaviour by reducing concerns for image loss. A reputation of an employee as an innovative person builds oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s self-identity. Once an employee views or identifies himself or herself as an innovative person, their self-esteem will reinforce the positive view of innovation, strengthening the belief that innovations will make valuable contributions to performance or work efficiency. However a reputable innovative employee, although, may not necessarily expect that being innovative will further improve his or her image (Schlenker, 1980). The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 6(a): Reputation as an innovative employee is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 6(b): Reputation as an innovative employee is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.5 Dissatisfaction with the Status Quo Dissatisfaction with the status quo is a proximal factor that makes employees conscious of the need to change (Farr Ford, 1990) and the importance of introducing new ideas, products, procedures and processes. Zhou and George (2001) found out in their research that job dissatisfaction, along with continuance commitment, supportive co-workers and organizational support for creativity, can lead to higher employee creativity. Schein (1971) suggested that employee innovativeness in a profession may come about either because of changes in the working environment or a misfit between individual value systems and the role demands of the particular job, which may cause dissatisfaction. The present dissertation define dissatisfaction with the status quo as an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dissatisfaction with the current performance or efficiency condition of his or her job role or work unit in the organization. Dissatisfaction determines the value of maintaining the status quo and catalyses the necessity for introducing something new to improve the current situation (Lant Mezias, 1992). Dissatisfaction with the status quo could arise for a number of reasons such as unfavourable performance evaluation, social comparison or environmental changes, personality traits (e.g., neuroticism), and discovery of potential improvement opportunities (Farr Ford, 1990). Dissatisfaction strengthens peopleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s beliefs that new ideas, products, procedures, or processes will improve efficiency and expected positive performance outcomes. This leads to generation of more innovative behaviours in the workplace. When organization is less effective in its functioning, employees are more likely to get credit for introducing new technologies and new ways to achieve objectives (Lant Mezias, 1992). In such a situation, employee innovative behaviours are more likely to be welcomed and accepted in the organisational social context. And employees who demonstrate innovative behaviours will be more likely to be considered as conscientious and competent increasing the potentials for image gain at the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on dissatisfaction with the status quo Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 7(a): Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7b: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7c: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace.
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